By Rigomar Rieger
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Additional info for A Glossary of Genetics and Cytogenetics: Classical and Molecular
Lies between 2-4 milliroentgens per week. At present, 300 milliroentgens per week is accepted as the maximum permissible dose. back mutation - a heritable change in a mutant --'r gene (--'r gene mutation) reSUlting in a --'r revertant which has regained the enzyme or function that was lost with a socalled "forward mutation". A true back mutation restores the original nucleotide sequence which had been changed by forward mutation. The observation of a wild type phenotype in a mutant line does not necessarily mean that this reversion has occurred by an actual "reversal" of the original mutational event, that is, by true back mutation.
Segregation ratios (pure chromatid segregation) of autotetraploid genotypes parent genotype I AA A4 A3 a A2a 2 Aa 3 a4 15 3 gametes Aa aa divisor 12 8 12 3 15 I 28 14 28 I A4 I 225 9 zygotes A3a A 2a 2 Aa3 3 60 48 24 174 82 174 24 48 3 60 a 4 divisor 9 225 I 78 4 196 78 4 The presence of "chromatid segregation" is implicit in cases where an unexpected excess of recessive and homozygous genotypes relative to "chromosome segregation" expectancies occur. The extent of "chromatid segregation" actually observed varies from locus to locus between certain limits and depends inter alia upon the crossing-over frequency between the locus and the centromere, on the frequency of multivalent formation and on the types of orientation and distribution of the multivalents.
Describes the possible conditions of which the given condition represents one of two mutually exclusive possibilities (such as "yes" or "no"). bithallic (Ahmad 1954) - -+ heteromixis. bivalent (Haecker 1892) - a pairing configuration (-+ chromosome pairing) during the first meiotic division which consists of two completely or partially homologous chromosomes (-+ pseudobivalent, quasibivalent). The number of bivalents per cell (meiocyte) normally corresponds to half the somatic chromosome number of diploid and genome-allopolyploid species.
A Glossary of Genetics and Cytogenetics: Classical and Molecular by Rigomar Rieger