By M. Hassan Kakar
This political and diplomatic background of overdue nineteenth-century Afghanistan and its significant ethnic teams lays naked how the floor used to be laid for the emergence of Afghanistan as a countryside in addition to for the implementation of schemes of modernization.
It describes how Amir Sher ‘Ali Khan and, extra totally, Amir ‘Abd al-Rahman Khan for the 1st time consolidated the authority of the important govt on the price of the conventional self sufficient neighborhood magnates, and therefore controlled to prepare a centralized monarchical nation and expand its direct rule thoughout Afghanistan.
They did so within the days of what has turn into referred to as the nice online game for the mastery of imperative Asian states. even supposing the good video game ended in the relief of Afghanistan in dimension, it additionally ended in the transparent demarcation of its barriers in response to foreign agreements.
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Extra info for A Political And Diplomatic History of Afghanistan, 1863-1901 (Brill's Inner Asian Library)
Military service was for life on a voluntary basis26 and soldiers were paid in cash instead of by drafts (barat ) which had been the 23a 24 25 26 Ibid. , 135. , 130. Ghobar, Afghanistan Dar Masir-e-Tarikh, 612. 27 The military expenditure strained the economy, since out of the yearly income of over thirteen million Kabuli rupees over ﬁve-and-a-half million (or nearly forty-three percent) were spent on the army28 The military expenses made it necessary for the amir to revamp the system of taxation.
13 30 chapter two war. They occupied the city of Kabul in early October after Afghan warriors unsuccessfully resisted them in Char Asia. 15 While it is true that the British did not have the right to force the amir to resign, they had the might to do so. At ﬁrst they kept the amir in custody pending a decision on his fate, but it was soon clear that he had become a prisoner. As Sir Charles M. MacGregor, Chief of Staﬀ of the British forces in Kabul, notes in his War in Afghanistan, 1879–80 “Had meant to examine the amir tomorrow, but Bobs [Roberts] said we had better not awhile, as he might look as if he was a prisoner, which he is,”16 Further, the amir himself “.
Apparently, he also intended to advise the new amir to follow a similar line. ”15 Second and more importantly, early in 1869 the amir visited India oﬃcially, and held meetings in Ambala with the governor-general and viceroy, Lord Mayo, who received him well, but did not share his fear of Russia. However, he granted him weapons, and the latter, in addition, brought back with him “. . ”16 Thus, it is clear that the reforms the amir introduced began during his visit to India, which . . 17 The amir would openly say that “.
A Political And Diplomatic History of Afghanistan, 1863-1901 (Brill's Inner Asian Library) by M. Hassan Kakar