By David Howard, Jamie Angus
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Extra resources for Acoustics and Psychoacoustics, Third Edition
An example would be a tube or pipe which is open at both ends. 32. 31 The pressure components of a standing wave between two bound–unbound boundaries. 32 The velocity components of a standing wave between two bound–unbound boundaries. subsequent multiples of this frequency. 20 can also be used to calculate the standing wave frequencies for this boundary arrangement as well. 5 cm long, and open at both ends. 985 m These two frequencies correspond to the notes F3 and F4, which differ by an octave.
This representation is called the frequency domain representation, or spectrum, of a waveform and the waveform’s amplitude versus time plot is called its time domain representation. The individual sine wave components of the waveform are often called the partials of the waveform. If they are integer related, as in the square wave, then they can be called harmonics. The lowest frequency is called the fundamental, or first harmonic, and the higher frequency harmonics are labelled according to their frequency multiple relative to the fundamental.
In this context the decibel representation of sound level is very useful, as there are many acoustic situations in which the effect on the sound wave is multiplicative, for example the attenuation of sound through walls or their absorption by a surface. 12. 12 Calculate the increase in the sound pressure level (SPL) when two vocalists sing together at the same level and when a choir of N vocalists sing together, also at the same level. The total level from combining several uncorrelated single sources is given by: PN uncorrelated = P͙N ෆ This can be expressed in terms of the SPL as: P P͙N ෆ SPLN uncorrelated = 20 log10 ᎏ ᎏ = 20 log10 ᎏᎏ + 20 log10(͙N ෆ) pref pref In this equation the first term simply represents the SPL of a single source and the addition of the decibel equivalent of the square root of the number of source represents the increase in level due to the multiple sources.
Acoustics and Psychoacoustics, Third Edition by David Howard, Jamie Angus