By J. J. Kipling
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Additional resources for Adsorption from Solutions of Non-Electrolytes
The use of the Freundlich equation can be justified for very dilute solutions only (see Chapter 11). The use of an equation of the Langmuir type is described in the next section for an ideal case. This equation, however, has a slightly different form from that derived by Langmuir for the adsorption of single gases. Furthermore, a more complex equation is needed for any mixture which does not show ideal behaviour in the liquid phase. A more fruitful approach is to consider the equilibria specifically involved in adsorption from the liquid phase.
In the less restricted sense, a possible confusion should be avoided. As most experiments on adsorption of vapours are carried out with single components and not with mixtures, the term "a monolayer (of adsorbate)" refers to a homogeneous monolayer. In adsorption from solution, the monolayer usually contains both components. In this book, therefore, the monolayer of material adsorbed from solution is normally a "mixed" monolayer except where the context shows that a different sense is intended.
They are, how ever, so far from ideal t h a t / i * ! changes very little over a considerable range of x\; consequently x\ can remain almost constant without any remarkable compensating changes i n / î . 30) apply. This situation is compatible with monolayer adsorption if the two components have the same molecular area when adsorbed. An example of this is probably found in adsorption by charcoal and silica gel from mixtures of toluene and iso-octane. 34 Most of the systems quoted by Schay, either from his own work or that of other authors, can be treated either by the approximate method or by regarding the solid as having a heterogeneous surface, with two parts which can be saturated respectively by the two liquid components.
Adsorption from Solutions of Non-Electrolytes by J. J. Kipling