By Duane W. Roller
The final committed e-book on historical geography used to be released greater than sixty years in the past. given that then new texts have seemed (such because the Artemidoros palimpsest), and new variants of present texts (by geographical professionals who comprise Agatharchides, Eratosthenes, Pseudo-Skylax and Strabo) were produced. there was a lot archaeological study, in particular on the perimeters of the Greek international, and a extra actual knowing of old geography and geographers has emerged. the subject is for that reason past due a clean and sustained therapy. In supplying accurately that, Duane curler explores vital themes like wisdom of the area within the Bronze Age and Archaic classes; Greek growth into the Black Sea and the West; the Pythagorean thought of the earth as a globe; the discovery of geography as a self-discipline via Eratosthenes; Polybios the explorer; Strabo’s well-known Geographica; the travels of Alexander the nice; Roman geography; Ptolemy and past due antiquity; and the cultural reawakening of old geographical wisdom within the Renaissance, together with Columbus’ use of old resources.
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Additional info for Ancient Geography: The Discovery of the World in Classical Greece and Rome (Library of Classical Studies)
What this demonstrates is that the general form of such a ﬁlter is an oscillation of the required frequency, with the amplitude increasing from a small value up to a maximum and then reducing again. The number of points used in the ﬁlter deﬁnes the bandwidth of the ﬁlter and hence the number of oscillations included in the computation – the greater the number of points used in the ﬁlter, the narrower its bandwidth. But, as with all smoothing and ﬁltering operations, there is a pay-off between the narrow 26 S T A T I S T I C A L B A C KG R O U N D Fig.
But to ﬁnd the frequency distribution of noise, we need to know the amount of variance in a unit frequency bandwidth. It is important to note that in this book the frequency and its reciprocal, the period, of any cycle are used interchangeably. 5 cpa (periodicities from 200 to 2 years). This is a very narrow frequency spread when compared with ﬂuctuations on the scale 1 week to 1 day that cover the range 52 to 365 cpa. So, although short-term ﬂuctuations in the weather may appear dramatic, when spread over this much greater frequency range their contribution to the power spectrum for unit frequency interval is less than the longer-term ﬂuctuations.
Similarly, there is an accumulation of features around 5 years, but these are scattered over quite a frequency range, are mostly of low signiﬁcance and are missing in several monthly records. 9 years, but again they are spread over quite a frequency range. 8-year range where every month has at least one peak. 4 years appears frequently and is often highly signiﬁcant. This appears to be evidence of the tropospheric version of the QBO. This ﬁrst example of the search for cycles in well-established and lengthy instrumental records immediately throws up the problem that will dog our search.
Ancient Geography: The Discovery of the World in Classical Greece and Rome (Library of Classical Studies) by Duane W. Roller