By C. Heald, A. C. K. Smith (auth.)
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The vessel, in addition to acting as a container, also functions as a heat reservoir by supplying a quantity of heat dqe when the gas expands, or by accepting a quantity dqc on compression. 1 that dqe =dU+Px dV where Px d Vis the work done by the gas against the opposing pressure. If the process is isothermal, dU will be zero, since molecular energy is independent of volume; there I? 1 Expansion-compression cycle for an ideal gas are no forces between the molecules of an ideal gas and consequently their energy is independent of their separation.
The heat and work produced by a reaction are not definite quantities but depend on the exact manner by which it is effected. The reaction of the lead storage battery Pb + Pb02 + 2H2S04 ~ 2PbS0 4 + 2H 20 for example, liberates a great deal of heat, but performs little work if the terminals of the battery are short circuited by a metal bar; the reverse is true if the terminals are connected to an electric motor. Thus, a given change in state from Pb, Pb0 2 and H2 S0 4 to PbS0 4 and H 2 0 does not produce definite values for heat liberated or work done; in the language of thermodynamics, these quantities are not properties of state.
59 x w- 2 r 2 298 Now, this heat comes from the enthalpy of combustion, since the system is considered to be adiabatic. 67 x w- 3 T 2 32 APPLIED PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY From this quadratic equation, T = 1904 K, the negative root being rejected as imaginary. 02(g) ~ CO(g) If 28 per cent of the heat generated is lost from the unit, find (i) the ratio of steam to air that makes the unit energetically self-supporting, (ii) the calorific value of the cooled (298 K) gas. (i) Examination of the two reactions, (c) and (d) will show that one is exothermic and the other endothermic.
Applied Physical Chemistry by C. Heald, A. C. K. Smith (auth.)